Implement the Statement Distribution Subsystem (#1326)

* set up data types and control flow for statement distribution

* add some set-like methods to View

* implement sending to peers

* start fixing equivocation handling

* Add a section to the statement distribution subsystem on equivocations and flood protection

* fix typo and amend wording

* implement flood protection

* have peer knowledge tracker follow when peer first learns about a candidate

* send dependents after circulating

* add another TODO

* trigger send in one more place

* refactors from review

* send new statements to candidate backing

* instantiate active head data with runtime API values

* track our view changes and peer view changes

* apply a benefit to peers who send us statements we want

* remove unneeded TODO

* add some comments and improve Hash implementation

* start tests and fix `note_statement`

* test active_head seconding logic

* test that the per-peer tracking logic works

* test per-peer knowledge tracker

* test that peer view updates lead to messages being sent

* test statement circulation

* address review comments

* have view set methods return references
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