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// Copyright 2017-2020 Parity Technologies (UK) Ltd.
// This file is part of Polkadot.

// Polkadot is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
// (at your option) any later version.

// Polkadot is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// GNU General Public License for more details.

// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with Polkadot.  If not, see <>.

//! Collation node logic.
//! A collator node lives on a distinct parachain and submits a proposal for
//! a state transition, along with a proof for its validity
//! (what we might call a witness or block data).
//! One of collators' other roles is to route messages between chains.
//! Each parachain produces a list of "egress" posts of messages for each other
//! parachain on each block, for a total of N^2 lists all together.
//! We will refer to the egress list at relay chain block X of parachain A with
//! destination B as egress(X)[A -> B]
//! On every block, each parachain will be intended to route messages from some
//! subset of all the other parachains. (NOTE: in practice this is not done until PoC-3)
//! Since the egress information is unique to every block, when routing from a
//! parachain a collator must gather all egress posts from that parachain
//! up to the last point in history that messages were successfully routed
//! from that parachain, accounting for relay chain blocks where no candidate
//! from the collator's parachain was produced.
//! In the case that all parachains route to each other and a candidate for the
//! collator's parachain was included in the last relay chain block, the collator
//! only has to gather egress posts from other parachains one block back in relay
//! chain history.
//! This crate defines traits which provide context necessary for collation logic
//! to be performed, as the collation logic itself.

use std::collections::HashSet;
use std::sync::Arc;
use std::time::Duration;
use std::pin::Pin;
use futures::{future, Future, Stream, FutureExt, TryFutureExt, StreamExt, task::Spawn};
use sc_client::BlockchainEvents;
use sp_core::{Pair, Blake2Hasher};
use polkadot_primitives::{
	BlockId, Hash, Block,
		self, BlockData, DutyRoster, HeadData, ConsolidatedIngress, Message, Id as ParaId,
		OutgoingMessages, PoVBlock, Status as ParachainStatus, ValidatorId, CollatorPair,
	ProvideRuntimeApi, AbstractService, ParachainHost, IsKusama, WrappedExecutor,
	service::{self, Roles, SelectChain}
use polkadot_network::validation::{LeafWorkParams, ValidationNetwork};
pub use polkadot_cli::{VersionInfo, load_spec, service::Configuration};
pub use polkadot_network::validation::Incoming;
pub use polkadot_validation::SignedStatement;
pub use polkadot_primitives::parachain::CollatorId;
pub use sc_network::PeerId;
pub use service::RuntimeApiCollection;
const COLLATION_TIMEOUT: Duration = Duration::from_secs(30);
/// An abstraction over the `Network` with useful functions for a `Collator`.
	/// Convert the given `CollatorId` to a `PeerId`.
	fn collator_id_to_peer_id(&self, collator_id: CollatorId) ->
		Box<dyn Future<Output=Option<PeerId>> + Send>;

	/// Create a `Stream` of checked statements for the given `relay_parent`.
	/// The returned stream will not terminate, so it is required to make sure that the stream is
	/// dropped when it is not required anymore. Otherwise, it will stick around in memory
	/// infinitely.
	fn checked_statements(&self, relay_parent: Hash) -> Box<dyn Stream<Item=SignedStatement>>;
impl<P, E, SP> Network for ValidationNetwork<P, E, SP> where
	P: 'static + Send + Sync,
	E: 'static + Send + Sync,
	SP: 'static + Spawn + Clone + Send + Sync,
	fn collator_id_to_peer_id(&self, collator_id: CollatorId) ->
		Box<dyn Future<Output=Option<PeerId>> + Send>
		Box::new(Self::collator_id_to_peer_id(self, collator_id))
	fn checked_statements(&self, relay_parent: Hash) -> Box<dyn Stream<Item=SignedStatement>> {
		Box::new(Self::checked_statements(self, relay_parent))
/// Error to return when the head data was invalid.
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug)]
pub struct InvalidHead;

/// Collation errors.
pub enum Error<R> {
	/// Error on the relay-chain side of things.
	/// Error on the collator side of things.

impl<R: fmt::Display> fmt::Display for Error<R> {
	fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
		match *self {
			Error::Polkadot(ref err) => write!(f, "Polkadot node error: {}", err),
			Error::Collator(_) => write!(f, "Collator node error: Invalid head data"),

pub type PolkadotClient<B, E, R> = sc_client::Client<B, E, Block, R>;
/// Something that can build a `ParachainContext`.
pub trait BuildParachainContext {
	/// The parachain context produced by the `build` function.
	type ParachainContext: self::ParachainContext;

	/// Build the `ParachainContext`.
	fn build<B, E, R, SP, Extrinsic>(
		client: Arc<PolkadotClient<B, E, R>>,
		network: Arc<dyn Network>,
	) -> Result<Self::ParachainContext, ()>
			PolkadotClient<B, E, R>: ProvideRuntimeApi<Block>,
			<PolkadotClient<B, E, R> as ProvideRuntimeApi<Block>>::Api: RuntimeApiCollection<Extrinsic>,
			// Rust bug:
			<<PolkadotClient<B, E, R> as ProvideRuntimeApi<Block>>::Api as sp_api::ApiExt<Block>>::StateBackend:
			Extrinsic: codec::Codec + Send + Sync + 'static,
			E: sc_client::CallExecutor<Block> + Clone + Send + Sync + 'static,
			SP: Spawn + Clone + Send + Sync + 'static,
			R: Send + Sync + 'static,
			B: sc_client_api::Backend<Block> + 'static,
			// Rust bug:
			B::State: sp_api::StateBackend<Blake2Hasher>;
/// Parachain context needed for collation.
/// This can be implemented through an externally attached service or a stub.
/// This is expected to be a lightweight, shared type like an Arc.
pub trait ParachainContext: Clone {
	type ProduceCandidate: Future<Output = Result<(BlockData, HeadData, OutgoingMessages), InvalidHead>>;
	/// Produce a candidate, given the relay parent hash, the latest ingress queue information
	/// and the last parachain head.
	fn produce_candidate<I: IntoIterator<Item=(ParaId, Message)>>(
		status: ParachainStatus,
		ingress: I,
	) -> Self::ProduceCandidate;

/// Relay chain context needed to collate.
/// This encapsulates a network and local database which may store
/// some of the input.
pub trait RelayChainContext {
	type Error: std::fmt::Debug;

	/// Future that resolves to the un-routed egress queues of a parachain.
	/// The first item is the oldest.
	type FutureEgress: Future<Output = Result<ConsolidatedIngress, Self::Error>>;

	/// Get un-routed egress queues from a parachain to the local parachain.
	fn unrouted_egress(&self, _id: ParaId) -> Self::FutureEgress;
/// Produce a candidate for the parachain, with given contexts, parent head, and signing key.
pub async fn collate<R, P>(
	local_id: ParaId,
	parachain_status: ParachainStatus,
	relay_context: R,
	key: Arc<CollatorPair>,
	-> Result<(parachain::Collation, OutgoingMessages), Error<R::Error>>
		R: RelayChainContext,
		P: ParachainContext,
		P::ProduceCandidate: Send,
	let ingress = relay_context.unrouted_egress(local_id).await.map_err(Error::Polkadot)?;

	let (block_data, head_data, mut outgoing) = para_context.produce_candidate(
		ingress.0.iter().flat_map(|&(id, ref msgs)| msgs.iter().cloned().map(move |msg| (id, msg)))

	let block_data_hash = block_data.hash();
	let signature = key.sign(block_data_hash.as_ref());
	let egress_queue_roots =
		polkadot_validation::egress_roots(&mut outgoing.outgoing_messages);

	let info = parachain::CollationInfo {
		parachain_index: local_id,
		collator: key.public(),
		upward_messages: Vec::new(),

	let collation = parachain::Collation {
		pov: PoVBlock {

	Ok((collation, outgoing))
/// Polkadot-api context.
struct ApiContext<P, E, SP> {
	network: Arc<ValidationNetwork<P, E, SP>>,
	validators: Vec<ValidatorId>,
impl<P: 'static, E: 'static, SP: 'static> RelayChainContext for ApiContext<P, E, SP> where
	P: ProvideRuntimeApi<Block> + Send + Sync,
	P::Api: ParachainHost<Block>,
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	E: futures::Future<Output=()> + Clone + Send + Sync + 'static,
	SP: Spawn + Clone + Send + Sync
	type FutureEgress = Pin<Box<dyn Future<Output=Result<ConsolidatedIngress, String>> + Send>>;
	fn unrouted_egress(&self, _id: ParaId) -> Self::FutureEgress {
		let network =;
		let parent_hash = self.parent_hash;
		let authorities = self.validators.clone();

		async move {
			// TODO:
			// Fetch ingress and accumulate all unrounted egress
			let _session = network.instantiate_leaf_work(LeafWorkParams {
				local_session_key: None,
				.map_err(|e| format!("unable to instantiate validation session: {:?}", e));

/// Run the collator node using the given `service`.
fn run_collator_node<S, E, P, Extrinsic>(
	exit: E,
	para_id: ParaId,
	key: Arc<CollatorPair>,
	build_parachain_context: P,
) -> polkadot_cli::error::Result<()>
		S: AbstractService<Block = service::Block, NetworkSpecialization = service::PolkadotProtocol>,
		sc_client::Client<S::Backend, S::CallExecutor, service::Block, S::RuntimeApi>: ProvideRuntimeApi<Block>,
		<sc_client::Client<S::Backend, S::CallExecutor, service::Block, S::RuntimeApi> as ProvideRuntimeApi<Block>>::Api:
				Error = sp_blockchain::Error,
				StateBackend = sc_client_api::StateBackendFor<S::Backend, Block>
		// Rust bug:
		S::Backend: service::Backend<service::Block>,
		// Rust bug:
		<S::Backend as service::Backend<service::Block>>::State:
		// Rust bug:
		S::CallExecutor: service::CallExecutor<service::Block>,
		// Rust bug:
		S::SelectChain: service::SelectChain<service::Block>,
		E: futures::Future<Output=()> + Clone + Unpin + Send + Sync + 'static,
		P: BuildParachainContext,
		P::ParachainContext: Send + 'static,
		<P::ParachainContext as ParachainContext>::ProduceCandidate: Send,
		Extrinsic: service::Codec + Send + Sync + 'static,
	let runtime = tokio::runtime::Runtime::new().map_err(|e| format!("{:?}", e))?;
	let spawner = WrappedExecutor(service.spawn_task_handle());

	let client = service.client();
	let network =;
	let known_oracle = client.clone();
	let select_chain = if let Some(select_chain) = service.select_chain() {
	} else {
		return Err(polkadot_cli::error::Error::Other("The node cannot work because it can't select chain.".into()))
	let is_known = move |block_hash: &Hash| {
		use consensus_common::BlockStatus;
		use polkadot_network::gossip::Known;

		match known_oracle.block_status(&BlockId::hash(*block_hash)) {
			Err(_) | Ok(BlockStatus::Unknown) | Ok(BlockStatus::Queued) => None,
			Ok(BlockStatus::KnownBad) => Some(Known::Bad),
			Ok(BlockStatus::InChainWithState) | Ok(BlockStatus::InChainPruned) =>
				match select_chain.leaves() {
					Err(_) => None,
					Ok(leaves) => if leaves.contains(block_hash) {
					} else {
	let message_validator = polkadot_network::gossip::register_validator(
		(is_known, client.clone()),

	let validation_network = Arc::new(ValidationNetwork::new(

	let parachain_context = match
	) {
		Ok(ctx) => ctx,
		Err(()) => {
			return Err(polkadot_cli::error::Error::Other("Could not build the parachain context!".into()))
	let inner_exit = exit.clone();
	let work = client.import_notification_stream()
		.for_each(move |notification| {
			macro_rules! try_fr {
				($e:expr) => {
					match $e {
						Ok(x) => x,
						Err(e) => return future::Either::Left(future::err(Error::Polkadot(
							format!("{:?}", e)
			let relay_parent = notification.hash;
			let id = BlockId::hash(relay_parent);

			let network = network.clone();
			let client = client.clone();
			let key = key.clone();
			let parachain_context = parachain_context.clone();
			let validation_network = validation_network.clone();
			let inner_exit_2 = inner_exit.clone();

			let work = future::lazy(move |_| {
				let api = client.runtime_api();
				let status = match try_fr!(api.parachain_status(&id, para_id)) {
					Some(status) => status,
					None => return future::Either::Left(future::ok(())),

				let validators = try_fr!(api.validators(&id));

				let targets = compute_targets(

				let context = ApiContext {
					network: validation_network,
					parent_hash: relay_parent,

				let collation_work = collate(
				).map_ok(move |(collation, outgoing)| {
					network.with_spec(move |spec, ctx| {
						let res = spec.add_local_collation(

						let exit = inner_exit_2.clone();
						tokio::spawn(future::select(res.boxed(), exit).map(drop).map(|_| Ok(())).compat());
			let deadlined = future::select(
				work.then(|f| f).boxed(),

			let silenced = deadlined
				.map(|either| {
					if let future::Either::Right(_) = either {
						warn!("Collation failure: timeout");

				let future = future::select(
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			tokio::spawn(|_| Ok(())).compat());
	polkadot_cli::run_until_exit(runtime, service, exit)
fn compute_targets(para_id: ParaId, session_keys: &[ValidatorId], roster: DutyRoster) -> HashSet<ValidatorId> {
	use polkadot_primitives::parachain::Chain;

		.filter(|&(_, c)| c == &Chain::Parachain(para_id))
		.filter_map(|(i, _)| session_keys.get(i))

/// Set the `collating_for` parameter of the configuration.
fn prepare_config(config: &mut Configuration, para_id: ParaId, key: &Arc<CollatorPair>) {
	config.custom.collating_for = Some((key.public(), para_id));

/// Run a collator node with the given `RelayChainContext` and `ParachainContext`
/// build by the given `BuildParachainContext` and arguments to the underlying polkadot node.
/// Provide a future which resolves when the node should exit.
/// This function blocks until done.
pub fn run_collator<P, E>(
	build_parachain_context: P,
	para_id: ParaId,
	exit: E,
	key: Arc<CollatorPair>,
	mut config: Configuration,
) -> polkadot_cli::error::Result<()> where
	P: BuildParachainContext,
	P::ParachainContext: Send + 'static,
	<P::ParachainContext as ParachainContext>::ProduceCandidate: Send,
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	E: futures::Future<Output = ()> + Unpin + Send + Clone + Sync + 'static,
	prepare_config(&mut config, para_id, &key);

	match (config.chain_spec.is_kusama(), config.roles) {
		(true, Roles::LIGHT) =>
			run_collator_node(service::kusama_new_light(config)?, exit, para_id, key, build_parachain_context),
		(true, _) =>
			run_collator_node(service::kusama_new_full(config)?, exit, para_id, key, build_parachain_context),
		(false, Roles::LIGHT) =>
			run_collator_node(service::polkadot_new_light(config)?, exit, para_id, key, build_parachain_context),
		(false, _) =>
			run_collator_node(service::polkadot_new_full(config)?, exit, para_id, key, build_parachain_context),
mod tests {
	use std::collections::HashMap;
	use polkadot_primitives::parachain::{TargetedMessage, FeeSchedule};
	use keyring::Sr25519Keyring;
	use super::*;

	#[derive(Default, Clone)]
	struct DummyRelayChainContext {
		ingress: HashMap<ParaId, ConsolidatedIngress>
	impl RelayChainContext for DummyRelayChainContext {
		type Error = ();
		type FutureEgress = Box<dyn Future<Output=Result<ConsolidatedIngress,()>> + Unpin>;
		fn unrouted_egress(&self, para_id: ParaId) -> Self::FutureEgress {
			match self.ingress.get(&para_id) {
				Some(ingress) => Box::new(future::ok(ingress.clone())),
				None => Box::new(future::pending()),
	struct DummyParachainContext;

	impl ParachainContext for DummyParachainContext {
		type ProduceCandidate = future::Ready<Result<(BlockData, HeadData, OutgoingMessages), InvalidHead>>;
		fn produce_candidate<I: IntoIterator<Item=(ParaId, Message)>>(
			_status: ParachainStatus,
		) -> Self::ProduceCandidate {
			// send messages right back.
				BlockData(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5,]),
				HeadData(vec![9, 9, 9]),
				OutgoingMessages {
					outgoing_messages: ingress.into_iter().map(|(id, msg)| TargetedMessage {
						target: id,
						data: msg.0,
	fn collates_correct_queue_roots() {
		let mut context = DummyRelayChainContext::default();

		let id = ParaId::from(100);

		let a = ParaId::from(123);
		let b = ParaId::from(456);

		let messages_from_a = vec![
			Message(vec![1, 1, 1]),
		let messages_from_b = vec![

		let root_a = ::polkadot_validation::message_queue_root(
			messages_from_a.iter().map(|msg| &msg.0)

		let root_b = ::polkadot_validation::message_queue_root(
			messages_from_b.iter().map(|msg| &msg.0)

		context.ingress.insert(id, ConsolidatedIngress(vec![
			(b, messages_from_b),
			(a, messages_from_a),

		let future = collate(
			ParachainStatus {
				head_data: HeadData(vec![5]),
				balance: 10,
				fee_schedule: FeeSchedule {
					base: 0,
					per_byte: 1,

		let collation = futures::executor::block_on(future).unwrap().0;

		// ascending order by root.
		assert_eq!(, vec![(a, root_a), (b, root_b)]);