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# Router Module

The Router module is responsible for all messaging mechanisms supported between paras and the relay chain, specifically: UMP, DMP, HRMP and later XCMP.

## Storage

Storage layout:

/// Paras that are to be cleaned up at the end of the session.
/// The entries are sorted ascending by the para id.
OutgoingParas: Vec<ParaId>;
/// Dispatchable objects ready to be dispatched onto the relay chain. The messages are processed in FIFO order.
/// This is subject to `max_upward_queue_count` and
/// `watermark_queue_size` from `HostConfiguration`.
RelayDispatchQueues: map ParaId => Vec<RawDispatchable>;
/// Size of the dispatch queues. Caches sizes of the queues in `RelayDispatchQueue`.
/// First item in the tuple is the count of messages and second
/// is the total length (in bytes) of the message payloads.
RelayDispatchQueueSize: map ParaId => (u32, u32);
/// The ordered list of `ParaId`s that have a `RelayDispatchQueue` entry.
NeedsDispatch: Vec<ParaId>;
/// This is the para that gets will get dispatched first during the next upward dispatchable queue
/// execution round.
NextDispatchRoundStartWith: Option<ParaId>;
/// The downward messages addressed for a certain para.
DownwardMessageQueues: map ParaId => Vec<DownwardMessage>;
```

### HRMP

HRMP related structs:

/// A description of a request to open an HRMP channel.
struct HrmpOpenChannelRequest {
    /// Indicates if this request was confirmed by the recipient.
    confirmed: bool,
    /// How many session boundaries ago this request was seen.
    age: SessionIndex,
    /// The amount that the sender supplied at the time of creation of this request.
    sender_deposit: Balance,
    /// The maximum number of messages that can be pending in the channel at once.
    limit_used_places: u32,
    /// The maximum total size of the messages that can be pending in the channel at once.
    limit_used_bytes: u32,
}

/// A metadata of an HRMP channel.
struct HrmpChannel {
    /// The amount that the sender supplied as a deposit when opening this channel.
    sender_deposit: Balance,
    /// The amount that the recipient supplied as a deposit when accepting opening this channel.
    recipient_deposit: Balance,
    /// The maximum number of messages that can be pending in the channel at once.
    limit_used_places: u32,
    /// The maximum total size of the messages that can be pending in the channel at once.
    limit_used_bytes: u32,
    /// The current number of messages pending in the channel.
    /// Invariant: should be less or equal to `limit_used_places`.
    used_places: u32,
    /// The total size in bytes of all message payloads in the channel.
    /// Invariant: should be less or equal to `limit_used_bytes`.
    used_bytes: u32,
    /// A head of the Message Queue Chain for this channel. Each link in this chain has a form:
    /// `(prev_head, B, H(M))`, where
    /// - `prev_head`: is the previous value of `mqc_head`.
    /// - `B`: is the [relay-chain] block number in which a message was appended
    /// - `H(M)`: is the hash of the message being appended.
    /// This value is initialized to a special value that consists of all zeroes which indicates
    /// that no messages were previously added.
    mqc_head: Hash,
}
```
HRMP related storage layout

/// The set of pending HRMP open channel requests.
///
/// The set is accompanied by a list for iteration.
///
/// Invariant:
/// - There are no channels that exists in list but not in the set and vice versa.
HrmpOpenChannelRequests: map HrmpChannelId => Option<HrmpOpenChannelRequest>;
HrmpOpenChannelRequestsList: Vec<HrmpChannelId>;

/// This mapping tracks how many open channel requests are inititated by a given sender para.
/// Invariant: `HrmpOpenChannelRequests` should contain the same number of items that has `(X, _)`
/// as the number of `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` for `X`.
HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount: map ParaId => u32;

/// A set of pending HRMP close channel requests that are going to be closed during the session change.
/// Used for checking if a given channel is registered for closure.
///
/// The set is accompanied by a list for iteration.
///
/// Invariant:
/// - There are no channels that exists in list but not in the set and vice versa.
HrmpCloseChannelRequests: map HrmpChannelId => Option<()>;
HrmpCloseChannelRequestsList: Vec<HrmpChannelId>;

/// The HRMP watermark associated with each para.
HrmpWatermarks: map ParaId => Option<BlockNumber>;
/// HRMP channel data associated with each para.
HrmpChannels: map HrmpChannelId => Option<HrmpChannel>;
/// The indexes that map all senders to their recievers and vise versa.
/// Invariants:
/// - for each ingress index entry for `P` each item `I` in the index should present in `HrmpChannels` as `(I, P)`.
/// - for each egress index entry for `P` each item `E` in the index should present in `HrmpChannels` as `(P, E)`.
/// - there should be no other dangling channels in `HrmpChannels`.
HrmpIngressChannelsIndex: map ParaId => Vec<ParaId>;
HrmpEgressChannelsIndex: map ParaId => Vec<ParaId>;
/// Storage for the messages for each channel.
/// Invariant: cannot be non-empty if the corresponding channel in `HrmpChannels` is `None`.
HrmpChannelContents: map HrmpChannelId => Vec<InboundHrmpMessage>;
/// Maintains a mapping that can be used to answer the question:
/// What paras sent a message at the given block number for a given reciever.
/// Invariant: The para ids vector is never empty.
HrmpChannelDigests: map ParaId => Vec<(BlockNumber, Vec<ParaId>)>;
```

## Initialization

No initialization routine runs for this module.

## Routines

* `check_upward_messages(P: ParaId, Vec<UpwardMessage>`:
  1. Checks that there are at most `config.max_upward_message_num_per_candidate` messages.
  1. Checks each upward message `M` individually depending on its kind:
  1. If the message kind is `Dispatchable`:
      1. Verify that `RelayDispatchQueueSize` for `P` has enough capacity for the message (NOTE that should include all processed
      upward messages of the `Dispatchable` kind up to this point!)
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpInitOpenChannel(recipient)`:
      1. Check that the `P` is not `recipient`.
      1. Check that `recipient` is a valid para.
      1. Check that there is no existing channel for `(P, recipient)` in `HrmpChannels`.
      1. Check that there is no existing open channel request (`P`, `recipient`) in `HrmpOpenChannelRequests`.
      1. Check that the sum of the number of already opened HRMP channels by the `sender` (the size
      of the set found `HrmpEgressChannelsIndex` for `sender`) and the number of open requests by the
      `sender` (the value from `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` for `sender`) doesn't exceed the limit of
      channels (`config.hrmp_max_parachain_outbound_channels` or `config.hrmp_max_parathread_outbound_channels`) minus 1.
      1. Check that `P`'s balance is more or equal to `config.hrmp_sender_deposit`
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpAcceptOpenChannel(sender)`:
      1. Check that there is an existing request between (`sender`, `P`) in `HrmpOpenChannelRequests`
          1. Check that it is not confirmed.
      1. Check that `P`'s balance is more or equal to `config.hrmp_recipient_deposit`.
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpCloseChannel(ch)`:
      1. Check that `P` is either `ch.sender` or `ch.recipient`
      1. Check that `HrmpChannels` for `ch` exists.
      1. Check that `ch` is not in the `HrmpCloseChannelRequests` set.
* `check_processed_downward_messages(P: ParaId, processed_downward_messages)`:
  1. Checks that `DownwardMessageQueues` for `P` is at least `processed_downward_messages` long.
  1. Checks that `processed_downward_messages` is at least 1 if `DownwardMessageQueues` for `P` is not empty.
* `check_hrmp_watermark(P: ParaId, new_hrmp_watermark)`:
  1. `new_hrmp_watermark` should be strictly greater than the value of `HrmpWatermarks` for `P` (if any).
  1. `new_hrmp_watermark` must not be greater than the context's block number.
  1. in `HrmpChannelDigests` for `P` an entry with the block number equal to `new_hrmp_watermark` should exist.
* `verify_outbound_hrmp(sender: ParaId, Vec<OutboundHrmpMessage>)`:
  1. For each horizontal message `M` with the channel `C` identified by `(sender, M.recipient)` check:
      1. exists
      1. `M`'s payload size summed with the `C.used_bytes` doesn't exceed a preconfigured limit `C.limit_used_bytes`.
      1. `C.used_places + 1` doesn't exceed a preconfigured limit `C.limit_used_places`.

Candidate Enactment:

* `queue_outbound_hrmp(sender: ParaId, Vec<OutboundHrmpMessage>)`:
  1. For each horizontal message `HM` with the channel `C` identified by `(sender, HM.recipient)`:
    1. Append `HM` into `HrmpChannelContents` that corresponds to `C` with `sent_at` equals to the current block number.
    1. Locate or create an entry in ``HrmpChannelDigests`` for `HM.recipient` and append `sender` into the entry's list.
    1. Increment `C.used_places`
    1. Increment `C.used_bytes` by `HM`'s payload size
    1. Append a new link to the MQC and save the new head in `C.mqc_head`. Note that the current block number as of enactment is used for the link.
* `prune_hrmp(recipient, new_hrmp_watermark)`:
  1. From ``HrmpChannelDigests`` for `recipient` remove all entries up to an entry with block number equal to `new_hrmp_watermark`.
  1. From the removed digests construct a set of paras that sent new messages within the interval between the old and new watermarks.
  1. For each channel `C` identified by `(sender, recipient)` for each `sender` coming from the set, prune messages up to the `new_hrmp_watermark`.
  1. For each pruned message `M` from channel `C`:
      1. Decrement `C.used_places`
      1. Decrement `C.used_bytes` by `M`'s payload size.
  1. Set `HrmpWatermarks` for `P` to be equal to `new_hrmp_watermark`
* `prune_dmq(P: ParaId, processed_downward_messages)`:
  1. Remove the first `processed_downward_messages` from the `DownwardMessageQueues` of `P`.
* `enact_upward_messages(P: ParaId, Vec<UpwardMessage>)`:
  1. Process all upward messages in order depending on their kinds:
  1. If the message kind is `Dispatchable`:
      1. Append the message to `RelayDispatchQueues` for `P`
      1. Increment the size and the count in `RelayDispatchQueueSize` for `P`.
      1. Ensure that `P` is present in `NeedsDispatch`.
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpInitOpenChannel(recipient)`:
      1. Increase `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` by 1 for the `P`.
      1. Append `(P, recipient)` to `HrmpOpenChannelRequestsList`.
      1. Add a new entry to `HrmpOpenChannelRequests` for `(sender, recipient)`
          1. Set `sender_deposit` to `config.hrmp_sender_deposit`
          1. Set `limit_used_places` to `config.hrmp_channel_max_places`
          1. Set `limit_limit_used_bytes` to `config.hrmp_channel_max_size`
      1. Reserve the deposit for the `P` according to `config.hrmp_sender_deposit`
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpAcceptOpenChannel(sender)`:
      1. Reserve the deposit for the `P` according to `config.hrmp_recipient_deposit`
      1. For the request in `HrmpOpenChannelRequests` identified by `(sender, P)`, set `confirmed` flag to `true`.
  1. If the message kind is `HrmpCloseChannel(ch)`:
      1. Insert a new entry `Some(())` to `HrmpCloseChannelRequests` for `ch`.
      1. Append `ch` to `HrmpCloseChannelRequestsList`.
The following routine is intended to be called in the same time when `Paras::schedule_para_cleanup` is called.

`schedule_para_cleanup(ParaId)`:
    1. Add the para into the `OutgoingParas` vector maintaining the sorted order.

The following routine is meant to execute pending entries in upward dispatchable queues. This function doesn't fail, even if
any of dispatchables return an error.

`process_upward_dispatchables()`:
  1. Initialize a cumulative weight counter `T` to 0
  1. Iterate over items in `NeedsDispatch` cyclically, starting with `NextDispatchRoundStartWith`. If the item specified is `None` start from the beginning. For each `P` encountered:
      1. Dequeue `D` the first dispatchable `D` from `RelayDispatchQueues` for `P`
      1. Decrement the size of the message from `RelayDispatchQueueSize` for `P`
      1. Decode `D` into a dispatchable. Otherwise, if succeeded:
          1. If `weight_of(D) > config.dispatchable_upward_message_critical_weight` then skip the dispatchable. Otherwise:
            1. Execute `D` and add the actual amount of weight consumed to `T`.
          1. If `weight_of(D) + T > config.preferred_dispatchable_upward_messages_step_weight`, set `NextDispatchRoundStartWith` to `P` and finish processing.
          > NOTE that in practice we would need to approach the weight calculation more thoroughly, i.e. incorporate all operations
          > that could take place on the course of handling these dispatchables.
      1. If `RelayDispatchQueues` for `P` became empty, remove `P` from `NeedsDispatch`.
      1. If `NeedsDispatch` became empty then finish processing and set `NextDispatchRoundStartWith` to `None`.

## Session Change

1. Drain `OutgoingParas`. For each `P` happened to be in the list:
  1. Remove all inbound channels of `P`, i.e. `(_, P)`,
  1. Remove all outbound channels of `P`, i.e. `(P, _)`,
  1. Remove all `DownwardMessageQueues` of `P`.
  1. Remove `RelayDispatchQueueSize` of `P`.
  1. Remove `RelayDispatchQueues` of `P`.
  1. Remove `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` for `P`
  1. Remove `P` if it exists in `NeedsDispatch`.
  1. If `P` is in `NextDispatchRoundStartWith`, then reset it to `None`
  - Note that if we don't remove the open/close requests since they are going to die out naturally at the end of the session.
1. For each channel designator `D` in `HrmpOpenChannelRequestsList` we query the request `R` from `HrmpOpenChannelRequests`:
    1. if `R.confirmed = false`:
        1. increment `R.age` by 1.
        1. if `R.age` reached a preconfigured time-to-live limit `config.hrmp_open_request_ttl`, then:
            1. refund `R.sender_deposit` to the sender
            1. decrement `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` for `D.sender` by 1.
        1. if both `D.sender` and `D.recipient` are not offboarded.
          1. create a new channel `C` between `(D.sender, D.recipient)`.
              1. Initialize the `C.sender_deposit` with `R.sender_deposit` and `C.recipient_deposit`
              with the value found in the configuration `config.hrmp_recipient_deposit`.
              1. Insert `sender` into the set `HrmpIngressChannelsIndex` for the `recipient`.
              1. Insert `recipient` into the set `HrmpEgressChannelsIndex` for the `sender`.
        1. decrement `HrmpOpenChannelRequestCount` for `D.sender` by 1.
1. For each HRMP channel designator `D` in `HrmpCloseChannelRequestsList`
    1. remove the channel identified by `D`, if exists.
    1. remove `D` from `HrmpCloseChannelRequests`.
    1. remove `D` from `HrmpCloseChannelRequestsList`
To remove a HRMP channel `C` identified with a tuple `(sender, recipient)`:

1. Return `C.sender_deposit` to the `sender`.
1. Return `C.recipient_deposit` to the `recipient`.
1. Remove `C` from `HrmpChannels`.
1. Remove `C` from `HrmpChannelContents`.
1. Remove `recipient` from the set `HrmpEgressChannelsIndex` for `sender`.
1. Remove `sender` from the set `HrmpIngressChannelsIndex` for `recipient`.