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# Message types

Types of messages that are passed between parachains and the relay chain: UMP, DMP, XCMP.

There is also HRMP (Horizontally Relay-routed Message Passing) which provides the same functionality
although with smaller scalability potential.

## HrmpChannelId

A type that uniquely identifies a HRMP channel. A HRMP channel is established between two paras.
In text, we use the notation `(A, B)` to specify a channel between A and B. The channels are
unidirectional, meaning that `(A, B)` and `(B, A)` refer to different channels. The convention is
that we use the first item tuple for the sender and the second for the recipient. Only one channel
is allowed between two participants in one direction, i.e. there cannot be 2 different channels
identified by `(A, B)`.

```rust,ignore
struct HrmpChannelId {
    sender: ParaId,
    recipient: ParaId,
}
```

## Upward Message

A type of messages dispatched from a parachain to the relay chain.

```rust,ignore
enum ParachainDispatchOrigin {
	/// As a simple `Origin::Signed`, using `ParaId::account_id` as its value. This is good when
	/// interacting with standard modules such as `balances`.
	Signed,
	/// As the special `Origin::Parachain(ParaId)`. This is good when interacting with parachain-
	/// aware modules which need to succinctly verify that the origin is a parachain.
	Parachain,
	/// As the simple, superuser `Origin::Root`. This can only be done on specially permissioned
	/// parachains.
	Root,
}

/// An opaque byte buffer that encodes an entrypoint and the arguments that should be
/// provided to it upon the dispatch.
///
/// NOTE In order to be executable the byte buffer should be decoded which potentially can fail if
/// the encoding was changed.
type RawDispatchable = Vec<u8>;

enum UpwardMessage {
	/// This upward message is meant to schedule execution of a provided dispatchable.
	Dispatchable {
		/// The origin with which the dispatchable should be executed.
		origin: ParachainDispatchOrigin,
		/// The dispatchable to be executed in its raw form.
		dispatchable: RawDispatchable,
	},
	/// A message for initiation of opening a new HRMP channel between the origin para and the
	/// given `recipient`.
	///
	/// Let `origin` be the parachain that sent this upward message. In that case the channel
	/// to be opened is (`origin` -> `recipient`).
	HrmpInitOpenChannel(ParaId),
	/// A message that is meant to confirm the HRMP open channel request initiated earlier by the
	/// `HrmpInitOpenChannel` by the given `sender`.
	///
	/// Let `origin` be the parachain that sent this upward message. In that case the channel
	/// (`origin` -> `sender`) will be opened during the session change.
	HrmpAcceptOpenChannel(ParaId),
	/// A message for closing the specified existing channel `ch`.
	///
	/// The channel to be closed is `(ch.sender -> ch.recipient)`. The parachain that sent this
	/// upward message must be either `ch.sender` or `ch.recipient`.
	HrmpCloseChannel(HrmpChannelId),

## Horizontal Message

This is a message sent from a parachain to another parachain that travels through the relay chain.
This message ends up in the recipient's mailbox. A size of a horizontal message is defined by its
`data` payload.

```rust,ignore
struct OutboundHrmpMessage {
	/// The para that will get this message in its downward message queue.
	pub recipient: ParaId,
	/// The message payload.
	pub data: Vec<u8>,
}

struct InboundHrmpMessage {
	pub sent_at: BlockNumber,
	/// The message payload.
	pub data: Vec<u8>,
}
```

## Downward Message

`DownwardMessage`- is a message that goes down from the relay chain to a parachain. Such a message
could be seen as a notification, however, it is conceivable that they might be used by the relay
chain to send a request to the parachain (likely, through the `ParachainSpecific` variant).
enum DispatchResult {
	Executed {
		success: bool,
	},
	/// Decoding `RawDispatchable` into an executable runtime representation has failed.
	DecodeFailed,
	/// A dispatchable in question exceeded the maximum amount of weight allowed.
	CriticalWeightExceeded,
}

	/// The parachain receives a dispatch result for each sent dispatchable upward message in order
	/// they were sent.
	DispatchResult(Vec<DispatchResult>),
	/// Some funds were transferred into the parachain's account. The hash is the identifier that
	/// was given with the transfer.
	TransferInto(AccountId, Balance, Remark),
	/// An opaque message which interpretation is up to the recipient para. This variant ought
	/// to be used as a basis for special protocols between the relay chain and, typically system,
	/// paras.
	ParachainSpecific(Vec<u8>),
}
```