api.rs 16 KB
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// Copyright 2019-2020 Parity Technologies (UK) Ltd.
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//
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// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
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//
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//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
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//
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// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
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//! The public raw interface towards the host Wasm engine.
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use crate::env::{
    backend::{
        Env,
        TypedEnv,
    },
    call::{
        CallParams,
        InstantiateParams,
        ReturnType,
    },
    engine::{
        EnvInstance,
        OnInstance,
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    },
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    EnvTypes,
    Result,
    Topics,
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};
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use ink_primitives::Key;

/// Returns the address of the caller of the executed contract.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned caller cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn caller<T>() -> Result<T::AccountId>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| TypedEnv::caller::<T>(instance))
}

/// Returns the transferred balance for the contract execution.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn transferred_balance<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::transferred_balance::<T>(instance)
    })
}

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/// Returns the price for the specified amount of gas.
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///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
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pub fn gas_price<T>(gas: u64) -> Result<T::Balance>
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where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
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        TypedEnv::gas_price::<T>(instance, gas)
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    })
}

/// Returns the amount of gas left for the contract execution.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn gas_left<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| TypedEnv::gas_left::<T>(instance))
}

/// Returns the current block timestamp.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn block_timestamp<T>() -> Result<T::Timestamp>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::block_timestamp::<T>(instance)
    })
}
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/// Returns the account ID of the executed contract.
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///
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/// # Note
///
/// This method was formerly known as `address`.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn account_id<T>() -> Result<T::AccountId>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::account_id::<T>(instance)
    })
}

/// Returns the balance of the executed contract.
///
/// # Errors
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///
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/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn balance<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| TypedEnv::balance::<T>(instance))
}

/// Returns the current rent allowance for the executed contract.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn rent_allowance<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::rent_allowance::<T>(instance)
    })
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}

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/// Returns the current block number.
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///
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/// # Errors
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///
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/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn block_number<T>() -> Result<T::BlockNumber>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::block_number::<T>(instance)
    })
}

/// Returns the minimum balance for the contracts chain.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn minimum_balance<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::minimum_balance::<T>(instance)
    })
}

/// Returns the tombstone deposit for the contracts chain.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn tombstone_deposit<T>() -> Result<T::Balance>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::tombstone_deposit::<T>(instance)
    })
}

/// Emits an event with the given event data.
pub fn emit_event<T, Event>(event: Event)
where
    T: EnvTypes,
    Event: Topics<T> + scale::Encode,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::emit_event::<T, Event>(instance, event)
    })
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}

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/// Sets the rent allowance of the executed contract to the new value.
pub fn set_rent_allowance<T>(new_value: T::Balance)
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::set_rent_allowance::<T>(instance, new_value)
    })
}

/// Writes the value to the contract storage under the given key.
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pub fn set_contract_storage<V>(key: &Key, value: &V)
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where
    V: scale::Encode,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        Env::set_contract_storage::<V>(instance, key, value)
    })
}

/// Returns the value stored under the given key in the contract's storage if any.
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///
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/// # Errors
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///
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/// - If the decoding of the typed value failed
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pub fn get_contract_storage<R>(key: &Key) -> Option<Result<R>>
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where
    R: scale::Decode,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        Env::get_contract_storage::<R>(instance, key)
    })
}

/// Clears the contract's storage key entry.
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pub fn clear_contract_storage(key: &Key) {
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        Env::clear_contract_storage(instance, key)
    })
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}

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/// Invokes a call to the runtime.
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///
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/// # Note
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///
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/// The call is not guaranteed to execute immediately but might be deferred
/// to the end of the contract execution.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// - If the called runtime function does not exist.
pub fn invoke_runtime<T>(params: &T::Call) -> Result<()>
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where
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    T: EnvTypes,
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{
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::invoke_runtime::<T>(instance, params)
    })
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}
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/// Invokes a contract message.
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///
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/// # Note
///
/// - Prefer using this over [`eval_contract`] if possible. [`invoke_contract`]
///   will generally have a better performance since it won't try to fetch any results.
/// - This is a low level way to invoke another smart contract.
///   Prefer to use the ink! guided and type safe approach to using this.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// - If the called contract does not exist.
/// - If the called contract is a tombstone.
/// - If arguments passed to the called contract message are invalid.
/// - If the called contract execution has trapped.
/// - If the called contract ran out of gas upon execution.
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pub fn invoke_contract<T, Args>(params: &CallParams<T, Args, ()>) -> Result<()>
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where
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    T: EnvTypes,
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    Args: scale::Encode,
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{
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
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        TypedEnv::invoke_contract::<T, Args>(instance, params)
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    })
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}
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/// Evaluates a contract message and returns its result.
///
/// # Note
///
/// This is a low level way to evaluate another smart contract.
/// Prefer to use the ink! guided and type safe approach to using this.
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///
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/// # Errors
///
/// - If the called contract does not exist.
/// - If the called contract is a tombstone.
/// - If arguments passed to the called contract message are invalid.
/// - If the called contract execution has trapped.
/// - If the called contract ran out of gas upon execution.
/// - If the returned value failed to decode properly.
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pub fn eval_contract<T, Args, R>(params: &CallParams<T, Args, ReturnType<R>>) -> Result<R>
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where
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    T: EnvTypes,
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    Args: scale::Encode,
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    R: scale::Decode,
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{
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
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        TypedEnv::eval_contract::<T, Args, R>(instance, params)
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    })
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}

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/// Instantiates another contract.
///
/// # Note
///
/// This is a low level way to instantiate another smart contract.
/// Prefer to use the ink! guided and type safe approach to using this.
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///
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/// # Errors
///
/// - If the code hash is invalid.
/// - If the arguments passed to the instantiation process are invalid.
/// - If the instantiation process traps.
/// - If the instantiation process runs out of gas.
/// - If given insufficient endowment.
/// - If the returned account ID failed to decode properly.
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pub fn instantiate_contract<T, Args, C>(
    params: &InstantiateParams<T, Args, C>,
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) -> Result<T::AccountId>
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where
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    T: EnvTypes,
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    Args: scale::Encode,
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{
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
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        TypedEnv::instantiate_contract::<T, Args, C>(instance, params)
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    })
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}
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/// Restores a smart contract in tombstone state.
///
/// # Params
///
/// - `account_id`: Account ID of the to-be-restored contract.
/// - `code_hash`: Code hash of the to-be-restored contract.
/// - `rent_allowance`: Rent allowance of the restored contract
///                     upon successful restoration.
/// - `filtered_keys`: Storage keys to be excluded when calculating the tombstone hash,
///                    which is used to decide whether the original contract and the
///                    to-be-restored contract have matching storage.
///
/// # Usage
///
/// A smart contract that has too few funds to pay for its storage fees
/// can eventually be evicted. An evicted smart contract `C` leaves behind
/// a tombstone associated with a hash that has been computed partially
/// by its storage contents.
///
/// To restore contract `C` back to a fully working contract the normal
/// process is to write another contract `C2` with the only purpose to
/// eventually have the absolutely same contract storage as `C` did when
/// it was evicted.
/// For that purpose `C2` can use other storage keys that have not been in
/// use by contract `C`.
/// Once `C2` contract storage matches the storage of `C` when it was evicted
/// `C2` can invoke this method in order to initiate restoration of `C`.
/// A tombstone hash is calculated for `C2` and if it matches the tombstone
/// hash of `C` the restoration is going to be successful.
/// The `filtered_keys` argument can be used to ignore the extraneous keys
/// used by `C2` but not used by `C`.
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///
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/// The process of such a smart contract restoration can generally be very expensive.
///
/// # Note
///
/// - The `filtered_keys` can be used to ignore certain storage regions
///   in the restorer contract to not influence the hash calculations.
/// - Does *not* perform restoration right away but defers it to the end of
///   the contract execution.
/// - Restoration is cancelled if there is no tombstone in the destination
///   address or if the hashes don't match. No changes are made in this case.
pub fn restore_contract<T>(
    account_id: T::AccountId,
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    code_hash: T::Hash,
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    rent_allowance: T::Balance,
    filtered_keys: &[Key],
) where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::restore_contract::<T>(
            instance,
            account_id,
            code_hash,
            rent_allowance,
            filtered_keys,
        )
    })
}

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/// Terminates the existence of the currently executed smart contract.
///
/// This removes the calling account and transfers all remaining balance
/// to the given beneficiary.
///
/// # Note
///
/// This function never returns. Either the termination was successful and the
/// execution of the destroyed contract is halted. Or it failed during the termination
/// which is considered fatal and results in a trap + rollback.
pub fn terminate_contract<T>(beneficiary: T::AccountId) -> !
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::terminate_contract::<T>(instance, beneficiary)
    })
}

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/// Transfers value from the contract to the destination account ID.
///
/// # Note
///
/// This is more efficient and simpler than the alternative to make a no-op
/// contract call or invoke a runtime function that performs the
/// transaction.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the contract doesn't have sufficient funds.
pub fn transfer<T>(destination: T::AccountId, value: T::Balance) -> Result<()>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::transfer::<T>(instance, destination, value)
    })
}

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/// Returns the execution input to the executed contract and decodes it as `T`.
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///
/// # Note
///
/// - The input is the 4-bytes selector followed by the arguments
///   of the called function in their SCALE encoded representation.
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/// - No prior interaction with the environment must take place before
///   calling this procedure.
///
/// # Usage
///
/// Normally contracts define their own `enum` dispatch types respective
/// to their exported contructors and messages that implement `scale::Decode`
/// according to the contructors or messages selectors and their arguments.
/// These `enum` dispatch types are then given to this procedure as the `T`.
///
/// When using ink! users do not have to construct those enum dispatch types
/// themselves as they are normally generated by the ink! code generation
/// automatically.
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///
/// # Errors
///
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/// If the given `T` cannot be properly decoded from the expected input.
pub fn decode_input<T>() -> Result<T>
where
    T: scale::Decode,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| Env::decode_input::<T>(instance))
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}

/// Returns the value back to the caller of the executed contract.
///
/// # Note
///
/// This call must be the last call to the contract
/// environment for every contract execution.
pub fn output<R>(return_value: &R)
where
    R: scale::Encode,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        Env::output::<R>(instance, return_value)
    })
}

/// Returns a random hash seed.
///
/// # Note
///
/// - The subject buffer can be used to further randomize the hash.
/// - Within the same execution returns the same random hash for the same subject.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// If the returned value cannot be properly decoded.
pub fn random<T>(subject: &[u8]) -> Result<T::Hash>
where
    T: EnvTypes,
{
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        TypedEnv::random::<T>(instance, subject)
    })
}

/// Prints the given contents to the environmental log.
pub fn println(content: &str) {
    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| Env::println(instance, content))
}

/// Returns the value from the *runtime* storage at the position of the key if any.
///
/// # Errors
///
/// - If the decoding of the typed value failed
pub fn get_runtime_storage<R>(runtime_key: &[u8]) -> Option<Result<R>>
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where
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    R: scale::Decode,
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{
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    <EnvInstance as OnInstance>::on_instance(|instance| {
        Env::get_runtime_storage::<R>(instance, runtime_key)
    })
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}
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/// Built-in efficient cryptographic hash functions.
pub mod hash {
    use super::*;

    macro_rules! impl_hash_fn {
        ( $(#[$doc:meta])* fn $name:ident($output_len:literal) ) => {
            paste::item! {
                $( #[$doc] )*
                pub fn $name(input: &[u8], output: &mut [u8; $output_len]) {
                    // No need to actually access the environmental instance
                    // if we only call one of its inherent methods.
                    <EnvInstance as Env>::[<hash_ $name>](input, output)
                }
            }
        };
    }
    impl_hash_fn!(
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        /// Conducts the SHA2 256-bit hash of the given bytes and
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        /// puts the result into the output buffer.
        fn sha2_256(32)
    );
    impl_hash_fn!(
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        /// Conducts the KECCAK 256-bit hash of the given bytes and
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        /// puts the result into the output buffer.
        fn keccak_256(32)
    );
    impl_hash_fn!(
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        /// Conducts the BLAKE2 256-bit hash of the given bytes and
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        /// puts the result into the output buffer.
        fn blake2_256(32)
    );
    impl_hash_fn!(
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        /// Conducts the BLAKE2 128-bit hash of the given bytes and
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        /// puts the result into the output buffer.
        fn blake2_128(16)
    );
}