Implementation of ink! syntax 2.0 (#191)

* [lang2] initial commit of ink! lang2 frontend

This is going to be the frontend for the new ink! syntax.

* [lang2] change version syntax to semantic versioning string

* [lang2] add failure test for invalid semantic version string

* [lang2] fix some unused warnings

* [lang2] change lib name to ink_lang2

* [lang2] add span to ir::data::ItemStorage

* [lang2] modernize env types codegen

* [lang2] re-introduce entry points codegen but without body for now

* [lang2] add initial storage struct codegen

* [lang2] add lang2 flipper contract example for testing purposes

* [core] impl env2::EnvTypes for DefaultSrmlTypes instead of old env::EnvTypes

* [lang2] add `0` body to entry points

* [lang2] mark fn allocate_using impl for storage struct as unsafe

* [lagn2] ignore args in Initialize::initialize impl for storage struct

* [lang2] adjust compiletests

* [core] add emit_event to EnvAccess{Mut}

* [lang2] add codegen for contract functions

* [lang2] add Signature::inputs

* [lang2] adjust and modernize compiletests

* [lang2] apply rustfmt

* [core] add generic Encode param to EmitEventParams

* [cli] bump version 0.1.1 -> 0.1.2

* [core] make it possible to use EnvAccess{Mut} directly in storage

* [core] make Selector::{from_bytes, to_bytes} const fn

* [core] add check to Decode impl for CallData

* [core] add #[inline..] annotations to some public trait impls

* [lang2] move lang2 into lang2_macro and create new lang2 helper crate

* [examples] add initial core/flipper example that acts as codegen prototype

* [core] add some more #[inline..] annotations

* [lang2] split DerefEnv into AccessEnv{Mut} and losen direct trait bounds

* [core] add efficient conversion from DynEnv<EnvAccessMut> to DynEnv<EnvAccess>

* [examples] adjust core::Flipper prototype to newest state

* [core] add env accessors to DynEnv

* [lang2] add AccessEnv{Mut} impls for DynEnv and EnvAccess{Mut}

* [lang2] use double AccessEnv trait indirection in dispatch fns

* [examples] core::flipper: add ink-dyn-alloc crate feature

Enable this to enable dynamic storage allocation for your contract.
Dynamic storage allocation is an optional drop-in feature.

* [lang2] make LICENSE and sym links

* [lang2-macro] replace LICENSE and with sym links

* [lang2] add access_env sub module

* [lang2] simplify Message trait concept for constructors

* [lang2] add more general error codes

* [lang2] add storage sub module

* [lang2] remove old dispatch sub module

* [lang2] implement new dispatcher based on ink_model v2

* [examples] adjust core flipper example for new codegen

* [lang2] remove some commented out code

* [lang2] rename dispatch2 to dispatch_using_mode

* [lang2] fix doc link in DispatchMode docs

* [examples] adjust core::Flipper to better reflect codegen prototype

* [lang2] rename ContractDispatch to DispatchUsingMode and add docs

* [lang2] remove unused ContractInstance trait

* [lang2] remove unneeded Msg and Constr utility types

Those types should solely be provided by the contracts themselves.
They act as namespaces for the respective message type.

* [lang2/macro] add GenerateCodeUsing trait

* [example] add explanation docs to the Flipper::get(&mut self) method

* [lang2] fix unused warning

* [lang2/macro] refactor codegen module

* [lang2/macro] remove commented-out code

* [core] add EnvAccess to allow universal usage of EnvAccess

* [lang2] no longer require separate storage structs

* [examples] adjust core/Flipper to newest ink_lang2 and ink_core changes

* [examples] remove as much direct Flipper usages as possible

* [lang2/macro] temporarily disable dispatch codegen

* [lang2/macro] add MetaInfo::is_dynamic_allocation_enabled stub

* [lang2/macro] implement initial storage codegen

* [core] remove DynEnvAccess and DynEnvAccessMut

No longer needed!

* [core] implement AccessEnv for &'a {mut} DynEnv<EnvAccess{Mut}>

* [examples] fix implementation of ink_lang2::AccesEnv for StorageAndEnv

* [examples] fix ink_core::env2::AccessEnv impl for StorageAndEnv

* [examples] move deploy and call fns into dispatch const block

* [examples] convert docs to comments because they screw up cargo expand

* [lang2/macro] remove ink_model dependency

* [lang2] fix some minor warnings and issues

* [lang2/macro] fix codegen of ink_core::env2::AccessEnv impls

* [lang2/macro] refactor and improve FunctionSelector implementation

* [lang2/macro] Signature::inputs now returns an iterator over IdentType

Was returning an iterator over FnArg before but conversion is trivial.

* [lang2/macro] add dispatch codegen

* [examples] fix DefaultSrmlTypes usage in lang2/Flipper

* [core] prepare env2 to be used with ABI generation purposes

* [examples] add ABI generation to core/Flipper

This will serve as a prototype for ink_lang2 codegen.

* [core, model] remove unneeded warnings/lints

* [lang2] make calls to AccessEnv and Flush more explicit

* [lang2/macro] no longer use no-default-features for dev-dependencies

* [lang2/macro] surpress warnings of unused imports for core::env2::AccessEnv

* [lang2/macro] fix codegen of {ink_lang2/core::env2}::AccessEnv impls

* [lang2/macro] remove unused let binding (was commented out anyways)

* [lang2/macro] fix several codegen bugs

* [examples] remove ink_model and ink_lang dependencies of lang2/Flipper

* [examples] add contract and layout bindings type annotation

* [lang2/macro] adjust some passing tests

* [lang2] add GenerateAbi trait guarded by ink-generate-abi crate feature

* [lang2/macro] move scale dependency away from ink dependencies in Cargo.toml

* [lang2/macro] add Metadata and HasLayout derives to storage structs

* [lang2/macro] insert minor whitespace between bindings and quote

* [lang2/macro] add abi module to generate ABI generating code

* [lang2/macro] add Function::{filter_constructor, filter_message}

* [lang2/macro] fix bug that non-ink! filter for attributes was off

* [lang2/macro] make use of iterative array quoting in Dispatch codegen

* [lang2/macro] add utility to filter doc attributes and parse them to readable string

* [lang2/macro] add codegen for ABI generation

* [example] adjust lang2/Flipper abi-gen package

* [lang2/macro] ink::contract params adjustments

- make `env` param default to ink_core::env2::DefaultSrmlTypes
- add `dynamic_allocations = {true|false}`, default: false
- add `compile_as_dependency = {true|false}`, default: false

* [lang2/macro] adjust passing tests to new contract params

* [examples] adjust lang2/Flipper to new contract params

We enable dynamic_allocations for now since disabling it causes other errors.

* [lang2/macro] add different HasLayout impl for dynamic_allocations {true|false}

* [examples] lang2/Flipper no longer requires dynamic_allocations = true

* [lang2] rename AccessEnv::env to AccessEnv::access_env

This helps to disambiguate certain other `env` methods and trait impls

* [examples] adjust core/Flipper example

* [core] refactor event emitting interfaces in env2

* [examples] core/Flipper: fix env types aliases

* [examples] core/Flipper: adjust to new event emitting

- messages and constructors no longer can access private fields from StorageAndEnv
- rename __ink_storage to __ink_private
- add __ink_events module in __ink_private defining all events and utilities
- general rust formatting

* [core] add EmitEvent utility trait

This allow to disambiguate the contract's provided EmitEvent trait

* [examples] core/Flipper: make it impossible to ambiguate emitting of events

* [lang2/macro] rename to

* [lang2/macro] generated messages and constructors can no longer access internals of StorageAndEnv

* [lang2/macro] apply rustfmt

* [lang2/macro] add event codegen

- ABI generation codegen for events is still missing

* [lang2/macro] adjust some pass UI tests to new event codegen

* [lang2/macro] re-export the contract on crate root again

This is done for ABI creation since otherwise the abi-gen tool couldn't access the data.

* [lang2/macro] add ABI generation for events

* [lang2/macro] add Erc721 UI pass test

* [lang2/macro] add missing codegen for ABI event args docs

* [lang2/macro] fix a bug that ABI codegen would always impl GenerateAbi for Flipper

* [lang2/macro] add derive(Metadata) to Error enum for Erc721 test

* [core] add missing Initialize::default_value impls

* [core] add Debug impls for some env types

* [examples] core/Flipper: add code to allow for offchain testability

* [examples] core/Flipper: add error handling for test env init

* [lang2/macro] add docs to ABI generation of event args

* [examples] core/Flipper: adjust to improve testability

- No longer requires <Flipper as Testable>::constructor
- packs whole of flipper contract in associated flipper module such as what ink_lang2 does

* [lang2/macro] add filter_ink_attributes and has_ink_attributes to utilities

* [lang2/macro] re-export utils from ir

* [lang2/macro] add ir::utils::is_ink_attribute

* [lang2/macro] allow non-ink! items in the contract module

* [lang2/macro] add test for non-ink! module items

* [lang2/macro] apply rustfmt on UI tests

* [lang2/macro] fix 02 ui fail test

* [lang2/macro] generate code for non-ink! module items

* [lang2/macro] move utilities inside the contract module - because we can!!

* [lang2/macro] adjust compile tests for most recent changes

* [lang2/macro] add compile test for missing messages

* [lang2/macro] fix some minor warnings

* [lang2/macro] add a lint to check if all identifiers respect not starting with __ink

* [lang2/macro] add simple test for __ink starting identifiers lint

* [lang2/macro] update docs of idents_respect_pred

* [lang2] apply rustfmt

* [core] apply rustfmt to env2 module

* [lang2/macro] add ir::utils::filter_non_ink_attributes

* [lang2/macro] make use or ir::utils::filter_non_ink_attributes

* [lang2/macro] re-export contract on crate root only for ABI generation

* [lang2/macro] documented code generation principles

* [examples] add Erc20 token example for lang2

* [lang2/macro] refactor event codegen

* [lang2/macro] move dispatch codegen into __ink_private

This hides `Msg` and `Constr` namespaces into __ink_private.

* [lang2/macro] move ABI generation codegen into __ink_private

* [lang2/macro] add test to forbig accessing generated storage fields

* [lang2/macro] extend test to forbig accessing generated storage fields

* [lang2] implement testable contracts codegen

* [lang2/macro] do not generate dispatch code for tests or if `test-env` is enabled

* [examples] lang2/Flipper: add contract tests

* [lang2/macro] add simple tests to flipper test

* [examples] remove core/Flipper example again

This was decided after we felt that maintaining it was more of a burden than it being a help for further development.

* [lang2/macro] apply rustfmt

* [core] refactor env2 cross-calling infrastructure

* [core] move seals into utils

* [examples] lang2/Flipper: add default_works test

* [lang2/macro] add cross-contract calling

* [lang2/macro] add cross-contract calling test

* [lang2] remove CreateForwarder infrastructure since unneeded

* [lang2/macro] do not generate code for Events when compiled as dependency

* [lang2/macro] remove strange semi-comments in Msg and Constr

* [lang2/macro] add Debug derive to StorageAsDependency

* [examples] add Delegator contract based on ink_lang2

* [core] guard calling CreateBuilder::using_code at compile-time

* [lang2] fix some clippy warnings

* [chores] update README

* [lang2/macro] refactor into_hir: use ir types through ir module

* fix typo

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* fix typo in lang2/macro/src/ir/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* fix typo in examples/lang2/delegator/adder/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* fix typo in lang2/macro/src/codegen/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* fix typo in core/src/env2/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* fix typo in lang2/macro/src/codegen/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* [lang2/macro] improve some ink! error messages

* [lang2/macro] remove commented-out code

* fix typo in lang2/macro/src/codegen/

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* [lang2/macro] remove ancient Cargo.toml artifacts

* [examples] fix typo and enhance delegator docs a bit

* use `#!/usr/bin/env` instead of `#!/bin/bash`

Co-Authored-By: Michael Müller <>

* [lang2] apply rustfmt

* [core] env2: apply rustfmt

* [cli] adjust CLI to generate ink_lang2 contract upon new command

* [lang2/macro] generate some #[inline] annotations on some generated cross-calling interfaces

* [examples] improve Delegator example slightly

* [core] fix bug that SrmlEnv tried to impl traits for TestEnv

* [examples] fix bug that .ink/abi_gen was using incorrect crate features

* [cli,examples] fix all abi_gen/Cargo.toml files

* [examples] fix bugs in some examples

* [lang2/macro] suppress some unused_parens warnings

* [examples] add incrementer as lang2 example

* [lang2/macro] make codegen more precise when using traits

* [lang2/macro] "fix" a bug in cross-calling codegen

The fix is actually a hack that we should remove again as soon as possible by a proper solution.

* [core] rename ext_create to ext_instantiate

* [examples] lang2/Delegator: fix some warnings and added Delegator::get

* [examples] lang2/Erc20: add Erc20::allowance

* [core] fix bug in executing ext::scratch_read causing panic

* [core] remove unused println statements in tests

* [examples] delegator: minor improvements
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